Atrophy of thyroid mayo clinic
AIH: autoimmune hepatitis group
2014.12.29 23:35 kleigh9 AIH: autoimmune hepatitis group
Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition in which one's immune system attacks the liver and causes its inflammation. Treatment and AIH itself affects everyone differently, and this is the place to get support, answers, and discussions regarding this disease.
2019.09.08 16:22 SweetTreeBee Malignant Hyperthermia
This subreddit is for those with either suspected or confirmed Malignant Hyperthermia and for medical personnel who want to connect and learn more about this dangerous and rare condition.
2014.04.16 20:45 Ckrapp Not allergic, not contagious, just miserable
A place to discuss non-allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis, it's symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, etc.
2023.03.30 04:18 Alarmed-Quail-3966 Pelvic/stomach pain?
25F. 150lbs 5’8. White. No current health conditions. No smoking, alcohol few times per month, no medications. History of thyroid nodule & past anxiety.
So about 3-4 days ago I got diarrhea from what I’m guessing is bad food. The next day I felt bloated but ate a huge meal which made it worse. Yesterday I woke up with lower left/middle stomach/pelvic pains and I had frequent urination, with a bloating feeling. Today the pain and bloating isn’t as bad but I don’t have much of an appetite & after eating small amounts I feel like I have acid reflux which I rarely get unless I drink alcohol.
Im confused because I feel like it’s from the bad food, then I wonder why my bladder is going crazy, then I wonder if it’s my uterus or ovaries ??? (It’s around ovulation time for me). I can’t tell what the problem is and I get so anxious about pain and odd feelings.
Any insight is appreciated!
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2023.03.30 04:17 lukafromchina Classification and usage skills of antibiotics
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- Classification of antibacterial drugs 1.1 Classification according to the antibacterial spectrum and application of drugs 1. The main antibacterial drugs against Gram-positive bacteria include: penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, lincosamides, bacitracin wait. 2. The main antibacterial drugs against Gram-negative bacteria include: aminoglycosides and polymyxins. 3. Broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs include: fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, amide alcohols, etc. 4. Antifungal and antibacterial drugs include: amphotericin B, nystatin, clotrimazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, etc. 5. Antiparasitic antibacterial drugs include: ivermectin, abamectin, monensin, salinomycin, maduramycin, etc. 1.2. Classification according to chemical structure 1. β-lactam penicillins: fungicides during breeding season, penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, piperacillin sodium, dicloxacillin, etc. Cephalosporins: ceftaxime, cefadroxil, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone sodium, cephalexin, ceftiofur, etc. 2. Aminoglycosides streptomycin sulfate, apramycin sulfate, gentamicin sulfate, amikacin (amikacin sulfate), neomycin sulfate, spectinomycin sulfate, etc. 3. Tetracyclines Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Doxycycline, Metacycline, Minocycline, etc. 4. Amino alcohols such as thiamphenicol, florfenicol, etc. 5. Macrolide erythromycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin thiocyanate, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin, tilmicosin, tediroxin, gamimycin, etc. 6. Lincomycin, a lincosamide. 7. Polypeptide bacitracin, colistin, antibacterial peptides, etc. 8. Polyene nystatin, amphotericin B, etc. 9. Phosphorus-containing polysaccharides such as flavomycin, carbamycin, and erythromycin are mainly used as feed additives. 10. Polyether ion monensin, salinomycin, etc. 1.3. Synthetic antibacterial drugs 1, sulfasulfadiazine , sulfamethoxazole, sulfamidine, sulfamethoxine sodium, sulfaquinazoline, sulfachloropyrazine sodium, sulfadimethoxine sodium, sulfamethoxine Sodium etc. Highly sensitive to Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Salmonella, Corynebacterium pyogenes, etc.; completely ineffective against Spirochetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia, viruses, etc. 2. Antibacterial synergist TMD, DVD, etc. 3. Furans such as furazolidone. 4. Quinolones Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Ofloxacin, Dafloxacin, etc. 5. Other compound antibacterial drugs carbadox, isoniazid, berberine, etc. 6. Metronidazole , metronidazole, dimeridazole, etc. 7. Antiviral drugs interferon, transfer factor, astragalus polysaccharide, etc. 2. Incompatibility 1. Penicillins such as ampicillin sodium, amoxicillin, and penicillin G potassium [increased efficacy of compatibility] streptomycin, neomycin, polymyxin, quinolones; [decreased efficacy of compatibility] tilmicosin, Doxycycline, Florfenicol; [compatibility failure] aminophylline, sulfonamides, VC-polyphosphate, roxithromycin. 2. Tetracyclines Tetracycline , doxycycline, doxycycline, chlortetracycline [compatibility enhancement] tylosin, tiamulin, TMP; [compatibility failure] aminophylline. 3. Cephradine, cephalexin , cephalexin, cephalosporins, cephalosporins, cephalosporins, and cephalosporins [increased efficacy of compatibility] neomycin, gentamicin, quinolones, colistin sulfate; [decreased efficacy of compatibility] aminophylline, VC, sulfonamides, roxigenin Erythromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol; [increased compatibility with nephrotoxicity] cephalosporin II, diuretics. 4. Macrolides roxithromycin, erythromycin thiocyanate, and tilmicosin [increased efficacy of compatibility] gentamicin, neomycin, florfenicol; [decreased efficacy of compatibility] Lincomycin [compatibility failure] sodium chloride , calcium chloride; [increased compatibility toxicity] kanamycin, sulfonamides, aminophylline. 5. Aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin sulfate, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin [enhanced efficacy of compatibility] ampicillin sodium, cephradine, cephalexin, doxycycline, TMP; [decreased efficacy of compatibility] VC, Florfenicol. 6. Polymyxins [increased compatibility efficacy] doxycycline, florfenicol, cephalexin, roxithromycin, tilmicosin, quinolones; [increased compatibility toxicity] atropine, cephalosporin, Mycin, Gentamicin. 7. Quinolones ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin [compatibility enhancement] cephalosporins, ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, sulfonamides; 【Compatibility reduces curative effect】tetracycline, doxycycline, florfenicol, furans, roxithromycin. 8. Sulfonamides [Increased compatibility efficacy] TMP, neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin; [decreased compatibility efficacy] cephalosporins, ampicillin sodium; [ enhanced compatibility toxicity] florfenicol, roxithromycin. 9. Amino alcohols thiamphenicol and florfenicol [increased compatibility efficacy] neomycin, doxycycline, colistin; [decreased compatibility efficacy] cephalosporins, ampicillin sodium; [increased compatibility toxicity] card Namycin, quinolones, sulfonamides, furans, streptomycin. The vitamin folic acid, B12, can affect red blood cell production. 10. Aminophylline [reduced efficacy of compatibility] quinolones; [ineffectiveness of compatibility] VC, doxycycline, epinephrine. 11. Lincomycin [compatibility enhancement] metronidazole; [compatibility decrease efficacy] roxithromycin, tilmicosin; [compatibility failure] sulfonamides, aminophylline. 12. Sulfonamides [increased compatibility efficacy] TMP, neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin; [decreased compatibility efficacy] cephalosporins, ampicillin sodium. 3. Precautions and principles of veterinary drug use Safe, correct and rational use of veterinary drugs to effectively prevent and treat livestock and poultry diseases is the basic common sense that every breeder should master. 3.1. Diagnosis Correct diagnosis of epidemic disease is the premise of correct treatment, and the effect of treatment is the verification of diagnosis. Only by correct diagnosis and prescribing the right medicine reasonably can a satisfactory curative effect be obtained. For diseases of unknown cause, drug abuse is strictly prohibited. 3.2. Course of treatment and administration time The use of drugs must have a sufficient course of treatment. The length of the course of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, because the growth and reproduction of pathogens have a certain process. If the curative effect is too short, some pathogens can only be temporarily suppressed and cannot be eliminated. Once the drug is stopped, The suppressed bacteria will re-grow, multiply, and more serious symptoms will appear. In general, the drug can be stopped after the symptoms disappear, but when antibiotics are used to treat certain infectious diseases, in order to consolidate the therapeutic effect, it is necessary to continue to use the drug for a period of time after the symptoms disappear. Some chronic diseases require long-term medication. In order to reduce adverse reactions, medication should be prescribed according to the course of treatment. In addition, the application of some drugs at the right time can improve their drug efficacy. As for the administration time, it needs to be considered from the aspects of drug properties, absorption, drug stimulation to the stomach, animal tolerance and the time when the drug effect occurs. consider. 3.3. Dosage of the drug Usually, the drug is absorbed by the body and can only play a role in treating diseases when it reaches an effective concentration. If the dosage of the drug is too small, the effective concentration cannot be reached, the disease cannot be effectively controlled, and drug resistance is likely to occur; if the dosage is too large, after exceeding a certain concentration, the curative effect cannot be increased, resulting in waste of drugs and toxicity to the body. Therefore, the frequency, dose and course of treatment should be reasonably arranged according to the duration of the effective concentration in the blood. In addition, some drugs have different dosages and different pharmacological effects, and the dosage of the drugs should be reasonably controlled according to the specific situation. 3.4. Drug interactions In clinical practice, two or more drugs are often used in combination, with the purpose of improving efficacy, reducing or avoiding toxic reactions, and preventing and delaying the emergence of drug-resistant strains. When using veterinary drugs, the synergistic effect of the drugs should be fully utilized, and incompatibility should be paid attention to. For example, aminoglycoside drugs should not be compatible with erythromycin and other drugs, nor should they be compatible with muscle relaxants to prevent toxicity enhancement. 3.5. Drug resistance and allergic reactions Drug resistance refers to the development of drug resistance by pathogens, and the second refers to the development of drug resistance in animal organisms. After continuous and repeated administration of certain drugs, the response of pathogens and animal organisms to the drugs decreases, resulting in drug resistance. This requires timely replacement of drugs according to the progress of the animal's disease. An allergic reaction is an abnormal phenomenon that occurs in an individual animal after the application of a certain drug. Therefore, care should be taken when using veterinary drugs. 3.6. The species, age, gender and individual differences of animals Because the species, age, sex and body weight of the sick animals are different, even to the same drug, their sensitivity and therapeutic effect are also different, and the reaction is not obvious. Therefore, special attention should be paid when using veterinary drugs, and the specific situation should be treated on a case-by-case basis. 3.7. Pathological conditions and functional conditions of animals The pathological conditions and functional conditions of animals are different, and the responses to drugs are also different. Generally, the effect of drug treatment is more obvious under pathological conditions. 3.8. Comprehensive prevention and control measures Acute and chronic diseases in animals are often accompanied by dysfunction of multiple organs and systems throughout the body. In the course of clinical treatment, adhere to the method of combining traditional Chinese and Western medicine, while applying antibiotics, pay attention to strengthening the regulation of electrolytes and body pH balance. In the process of preventing and treating diseases in animals, it is required to be familiar with the pharmacology, toxicology, medicinal properties, indications, usage, dosage, and matters that should be paid attention to in use of various drugs. When selecting veterinary drugs, the principles of broad-spectrum efficiency, safety, convenience, economy and applicability, and harmlessness to humans should be followed.
2023.03.30 04:17 icaht Case Study – Eva (Hypermobility)
Eva is a 40 y/o carer and single mum who presented to the clinic with a collection of symptoms ranging from general muscular aches and pains, fatigue, sleeping problems, irritable bowel syndrome and mood swings. The main focus for her was her neck and mid back pain that had fluctuated in severity over a 5-year duration and for which she was currently taking Codeine on a daily basis. (Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain and often prescribed when the effects of paracetamol, ibuprofen and other non-prescribed painkillers don’t work.) https://www.icaht.co.uk/case-study-eva-hypermobility/
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2023.03.30 04:16 lukafromchina Amoxicillin sulfate colistin soluble powder is so compatible to use
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In the production practice of livestock and poultry breeding
, almost 100% of some relatively serious infectious diseases or relatively serious secondary infectious diseases have different degrees of bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis. However, due to the widespread abuse of antibacterial drugs in the past, it has also brought serious bacterial resistance problems to the aquaculture industry, so many antibacterial drugs are used according to the dosage specified decades ago. Basically, it can't reflect its due therapeutic effect. Here is an antibacterial drug that was once used very widely. For example, "amoxicillin" is the most common in veterinary clinics. It is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug that is well absorbed orally. In the body, it exerts a bactericidal effect by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. The principle is to make sensitive bacteria quickly become spheroids, burst and dissolve, so that it has a strong and rapid killing effect on Gram-negative bacteria and positive bacteria. It also has a significant and rapid killing effect on the spirochetes that cause digestive system diseases in livestock and poultry. Amoxicillin is relatively stable to gastric acid when taken orally, and is absorbed quickly in the body and acts quickly. Its effect on sensitive bacteria can prevent it from reproducing, and its bactericidal effect is better than that of ampicillin. Amoxicillin is well absorbed, which is also the pharmacological basis for its suitability for large-scale breeding groups drinking water administration; about 1 hour after taking it, the peak blood concentration can be reached, which is 2.5 times that of the corresponding dose of ampicillin taken orally under the same conditions. This is why amoxicillin acts so quickly. Food can affect how quickly a drug is absorbed, but not how well it is absorbed. Therefore, when amoxicillin is given clinically for the treatment of systemic infectious diseases, it is best to control feeding and concentrate administration on an empty stomach. However, when it is used to treat infectious diseases of the digestive system of the gastrointestinal tract, the above usage is wrong. At this time, it needs to be administered together with food or after feeding, and the administration time needs to be extended, and the administration cannot be concentrated. Otherwise, the clinical therapeutic effect is not very good or almost no effect can be seen. The fundamental reason is that the drug has been absorbed into the body, and the concentration of the drug distributed in the gastrointestinal tract or the effective drug concentration maintained is not high or the time is too short. Effectively and comprehensively inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria, so as to reflect the due therapeutic effect of medication. The pharmacology of the drug is relatively clear. Amoxicillin has a relatively broad antibacterial spectrum against sensitive bacteria clinically. It has a relatively good effect on Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria that are common in animal and veterinary clinics. It is the beginning of this sentence "sensitive bacteria". In fact, amoxicillin is the most important thing for clinically effective medication! Because the veterinary diagnosis results of many livestock and poultry diseases show that the infection of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella is the most extensive and common. Unfortunately, however, amoxicillin currently has the highest rate of resistance to these Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, when amoxicillin is used to treat the above-mentioned Gram-negative bacterial infection diseases, it is usually difficult to receive better drug effects clinically. The most fundamental reason here is that amoxicillin is resistant to these Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, if any veterinary drug manufacturer's amoxicillin product is effective against the diseases caused by the above-mentioned Gram-negative bacteria, most of them have added other additional sensitive antibacterial or synergistic ingredients. Then, according to the statistical analysis data from the clinical monitoring of veterinary treatment, the more serious bacterial diseases such as pericarditis, perihepatitis, endocarditis and liver capsule caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella , amoxicillin sulfate colistin sulfate soluble powder and apramycin sulfate soluble powder are combined into a prescription, which is used to treat the above-mentioned Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella hemolyticus, Proteus and other Gram-negative bacteria in chickens. Bacterial diseases can receive relatively ideal drug treatment effect clinically. In this prescription, although amoxicillin is broad-spectrum antibacterial and apramycin sulfate is also broad-spectrum anti-gram-negative bacteria, the medical scope of this prescription is still relatively narrow. It also only has a relatively good therapeutic effect on heart, liver and digestive tract diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, and its effect on respiratory diseases and genitourinary system infections caused by bacteria is not very prominent. This may be related to the change in the pharmacokinetic distribution in the body after amoxicillin sulfate colistin sulfate soluble powder and apramycin sulfate soluble powder are formulated into a prescription. Of course, this is the scope of research by scientists. For our vast number of veterinary drug users and farmers, as long as we ensure drug safety (animal safety and food safety), effectively and economically control animal diseases, and find out the reasons and The mystery is a matter for veterinary drug manufacturers and scientists. Farmers are more concerned about effectively controlling diseases and ensuring the health of animals, and not delaying their meat growth, egg production and milk production, because these directly affect the breeding efficiency and income. So, if the chicken has a respiratory disease, how to use amoxicillin sulfate colistin sulphate soluble powder for treatment? We have already used veterinary medicine in front of us. Every veterinary drug product is dead, it is like that when it is born, and everything in it is fixed. However, the various diseases that are occurring in the clinic are not fixed. They will also vary in thousands of ways due to different regions, farms, animal species, animal ages, and feeding and management conditions. How to deal with the ever-changing diseases with the same products? This requires group technology. Amoxicillin does not cure pericarditis and perihepatitis most of the time, but after combining amoxicillin sulfate colistin sulfate soluble powder and apramycin sulfate soluble powder together, this veterinary prescription is effective for a variety of Gram It is more effective in the treatment of pericarditis and perihepatitis caused by Klebsiella-negative bacteria. The reason is that apramycin sulfate solves the problem of drug resistance of amoxicillin, and amoxicillin promotes the absorption of colistin sulfate and apramycin sulfate, making this prescription suitable for Gram-negative bacteria. Treatment of systemic infectious diseases can be effective. As mentioned in the special article, amoxicillin sulfate colistin soluble powder combined with baicalin (baicalin extract) is very effective in the treatment of non-viral respiratory diseases that are popular in this season, and the clinical recurrence rate is low. The treatment is relatively thorough. Generally, it does not appear repeatedly, and eventually develops into air sacculitis. This is the active use of veterinary medicine. Every veterinary drug product is dead, it is like that when it is born, and everything in it is fixed. However, the various diseases that are occurring in the clinic are not fixed. They will also vary in thousands of ways due to different regions, farms, animal species, animal ages, and feeding and management conditions. How to deal with the ever-changing diseases with the same products? This requires group technology. Amoxicillin does not cure pericarditis and perihepatitis most of the time, but after combining amoxicillin sulfate colistin sulfate soluble powder and apramycin sulfate soluble powder together, this veterinary prescription is effective for a variety of Gram It is more effective in the treatment of pericarditis and perihepatitis caused by Klebsiella-negative bacteria. The reason is that apramycin sulfate solves the problem of drug resistance of amoxicillin, and amoxicillin promotes the absorption of colistin sulfate and apramycin sulfate, making this prescription suitable for Gram-negative bacteria. Treatment of systemic infectious diseases can be effective. https://www.arshinepharma.com/?info/Amoxicillin-sulfate-colistin-soluble-powder.html
2023.03.30 04:14 lukafromchina Learn these 6 points to easily identify chicken respiratory diseases!
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- Symptoms of chronic respiratory disease in chickens There are air bubbles in the eyes of sick chickens, and swelling of the upper and lower eyelids. At the beginning of the disease, young chickens make the sound of "spraying red and spraying red", with serous and mucous nasal fluid, coughing, sneezing, and respiratory rales. There may be cheese-like substances of different sizes in the eyes with a long course of disease, which may oppress the eyeball in severe cases. Cheese-like substances accumulate in the infraorbital sinus under the eyelids and protrude outward, like "goldfish eyes". Adult chickens are recessively infected, the egg production rate decreases, and the proportion of soft-shell eggs increases. Necropsy of sick dead chickens revealed secretions in the nasal passages, trachea, and bronchi, swelling of the mucous membranes, and off-white mucus on the surface of the mucous membranes. The walls of the air sacs are turbid, and there are plant-like dots on the air sacs. During the course of the disease, there are various yellow cheese substances under the thoracic air sacs or abdominal air sacs, and there are a lot of air bubbles between the intestinal tubes in the abdominal cavity.
- The symptoms of chicken infectious rhinitis show that the incubation period of the disease is short, 1-3 days for natural infection, and 16-48 hours for artificial infection through nasal cavity and sinuses. The main symptoms are rhinitis and sinusitis. The first is the discharge of serous fluid, which is especially prominent when feeding and encountering cold air. One or both sides of the sick chicken's face, infraorbital sinus, swelling, eyelid edema, purulent cheese accumulation in the corner of the eye, and foul smell Odor, mouth breathing often occurs, and with a grunting sound. Cut the middle part of the nose, there is a lot of nasal fluid and yellow exudate in the nasal cavity, and mucus flows out when it is lifted upside down. If the course of the disease is long, it can be seen that the nasal sinuses, infraorbital sinuses and conjunctiva accumulate cheese-like substances. Excessive accumulation often makes the eyes of sick chickens protrude outwards, causing eyeball atrophy and damage in severe cases, and eyes are blind. The follicles of laying hens are soft and easily broken, causing yolk peritonitis, and the egg production rate can drop by about 25%.
- Symptoms of chicken-borne throat-borne respiratory disease The typical symptoms of sick chickens are mouth stretching, "hemoptysis", elongated sound, strange cry, commonly known as "back and forth sound". Acute cases show obvious dyspnea, cough up bloody mucus hanging on the chicken coop or throwing on the ground. In chronic cases, the throat is blocked by light yellow cheese, and often dies of suffocation. The dead chicken was autopsyed, and the nasal cavity was severely congested, hemorrhaged, and there was a lot of nasal fluid. In acute cases, the throat and tracheal mucosa of chickens were festered and bleeding, with needle-like bleeding points, and there was a lot of bloody sputum in the trachea; in chronic cases, the throats or trachea of chickens were blocked by yellow-white cheese.
- Symptoms of chicken transmission Infectious bronchitis is divided into respiratory, renal, and reproductive types in terms of clinical symptoms. a. Respiratory: Sick chicks show dyspnea, try to stretch their necks, open their mouths to breathe, and can't make a sound. The mortality rate can reach 25%. Autopsy of dead chickens revealed serous or yellow-white cheese-like substances in the lower segment of the trachea and bronchi. b. Kidney type: There are slight respiratory symptoms, which can only be heard at night. The sick chickens huddle together and discharge white watery feces. The mortality rate of chicks is 10-30%. Autopsy of the dead chicken revealed that the kidneys were enlarged, light pink like peanuts, white urate particles could be seen on the surface of the kidneys, and the ureters were enlarged and white. c. Reproductive type: Adults do not lay eggs, walk like penguins, have more deformed eggs, and egg whites are as thin as water. The fallopian tube is dysplastic, short and occluded, and sometimes serous cysts of different sizes are formed in the enlarged part of the fallopian tube, which looks like a bladder and cannot produce eggs.
- Symptoms of chicken plague The typical symptoms of sick chickens are neck twisting, neck bending, turning in circles or looking up at the stars, straight forward or backward and other mental symptoms, dark red combs, and abnormal or strange sounds of "generlou". Green and thin feces are discharged, the crop is inflated, and the crop is filled with sour liquid and gas, and mucus is poured out of the mouth. The characteristic lesions of the dead chickens after necropsy were below the 1/2 of the descending part of the duodenum, 2-5 cm below the yolk pedicle, the corresponding parts of the two cecum and the ileum, and three lymphatic aggregation bubbles in the form of "jujube stones". "like" hemorrhagic ulcer; gastric content green, glandular stomach papilla bleeding, swelling, glandular stomach and gizzard junction bleeding; cecum tonsil swelling bleeding ulcer, rectal bleeding in spots or streaks; follicles deformed in a "cauliflower-like" shape, or The follicle ruptured, and there was a liquid yolk-like substance in the abdominal cavity; slight bleeding in the larynx, and needle-like bleeding in the heart and coronary fat.
- Symptoms of Avian Influenza The symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza are similar, but low pathogenic avian influenza usually has a mild onset and milder superficial symptoms. Affected chickens discharge yellow-white-green loose stools, black and purple crowns, dry necrosis at the edges, and edema on the face and beard. The typical symptoms of sick chickens are bleeding from the scales on the feet, and some sick chickens scream strangely, stretch their heads and necks upwards, and make roaring sounds. The egg production of laying hens decreased until it was completely produced, and the number of soft eggs, sandy eggs, and blood-spotted eggs increased. Autopsy of the sick dead chicken revealed that the breast muscles were purplish red or white like boiled meat, the base of the glandular stomach papilla was bleeding and covered with a layer of secretion that could not be scraped off, the junction of the glandular stomach and the gizzard was bleeding, and the horny layer of the gizzard was Easy to peel off. The pancreas is purplish red with transparent or dark red necrotic foci, which are characteristic lesions. Follicle congestion and bleeding, from golden yellow to bright red, fallopian tube congestion and edema, with a lot of sticky white secretion inside. The liver is enlarged and hemorrhages, with yellow stripes, crumbly like bean dregs. The kidneys are enlarged and show a mottled kidney. Coronary fatty hemorrhage, sometimes epicardial hemorrhage. Laryngeal and tracheal mucosal bleeding, tracheal ring bleeding, more bloody sputum.
2023.03.30 04:14 Glorfindel-GF Looking for surgery labs
Hey guys, I'm hoping to find a lab that I can work in in the Department of Surgery. I'm a bio student on the premed track and I'm now working in a lab elsewhere but don't really think I can learn many deep things from it. Cuz I'm an undergrad and my professional knowledge is limited. My PI is a physician-scientist so she's pretty busy with clinical work and barely has time to teach me the concepts, and I've got no chance to have or be involved in a project. Does anybody have any recommendations of labs (hopefully) in the Dept of Surgery that I can give a shot at with PIs who can really teach an undergrad? (Salary doesn't matter). Any advice would be appreciated. Thanks!
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2023.03.30 04:14 greenteawolfer 20% Off Clinical Supplies USA Coupon & Promo Code
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2023.03.30 04:11 lukafromchina The Harm of Mycotoxin in Feed and the Protective Effect of Antioxidants on Animals
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Ubiquitous in feed and feed raw materials
, it is a secondary metabolite produced by mold in feed and feed raw materials during the growth and development process, causing serious harm to animal husbandry production and human health. More than 300 mycotoxins have been isolated and identified so far. At present, the mycotoxins that are more common in feed and have serious effects on animals mainly include aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and vomitoxin. So what are the dangers of these toxins? 1 Aflatoxin is a toxic carcinogen produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 is the most common and the most toxic. Aflatoxin has serious damage to animal livers and is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Moreover, it will inhibit the immune function of animals, reduce animal production performance, cause secondary infection and even death. 2. Ochratoxin (OTA) is a toxic compound mainly produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. It has nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunosuppression, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. It mainly affects the liver and kidney of animals. May cause immunosuppression, tissue damage, a large amount of ochratoxin may cause intestinal mucosal inflammation and necrosis in animals. 3 Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi, has estrogen-like effects and mainly acts on the reproductive system, causing hyperestrogenism in livestock and poultry, which can cause premature puberty, Ovarian atrophy, prolonged estrus cycle, persistent corpus luteum, false estrus, miscarriage, return to estrus, and other reproductive abnormalities; male animals showed feminization phenomena such as mammary gland enlargement, nipple enlargement, prepuce hydrops, and testicular atrophy. Consumption of feed containing zearalenone in pregnant animals can cause abortion, stillbirth and teratogenicity. 4 T-2 toxin is a trichothecene toxin compound produced by a variety of fungi, mainly Fusarium trilineum, which can act as a protein biosynthesis inhibitor, neurotoxin, immunosuppressive factor or nephrotoxin in animals. Effect, the body can cause acute and chronic symptoms after ingestion. Poisoned pigs showed symptoms such as food refusal, vomiting, lack of energy, staggering gait, inflammation and necrosis of the skin around the lips and nose, salivation, diarrhea and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Pigs with chronic poisoning are stunted in growth and development, accompanied by symptoms such as chronic dyspepsia and aplastic anemia. 5 Vomitoxin is a B-type trichothecene toxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium stalk. Pigs eat feed contaminated with vomitoxin, which can cause vomiting, teeth grinding, anxiety, and flow in pigs. Toxic reactions such as saliva and gastrointestinal bleeding lead to a significant decrease in pig food intake and severely inhibit its growth and development. Detoxification treatment
At present, the methods of detoxification treatment of mycotoxins include: physical adsorption, biological detoxification, chemical detoxification, and application of mold removal agents, etc. Among them, composite mold removal and use of mold removal agents are widely used, and most of them are currently related to Antioxidants are used together. Protective effects So what are the protective effects of antioxidants on animals? Vitamins with antioxidant activity are currently the most studied for detoxification, such as vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, carotene, etc. Among them, VE has strong antioxidant activity and the detoxification effect is more obvious. In vitro studies have shown that adding antioxidants (β-carotene, ascorbic acid, selenium, vitamin E, etc.) to the diet can effectively reduce the effect of AFB1 on liver cancer in rats (Nyandieka et al., 1990); Inhibit the damage effect of AFB1 on rat liver DNA (Gradelet et al., 1998); β-carotene and zebra yellow can inhibit the effect of AFB1 on broiler growth (Okotie et al., 1997); vitamin C can reduce the effect of AFB1 on guinea pigs ( Netke et al., 1997). Vitamins not only inhibit the toxic effect of aflatoxins, but also have significant inhibitory effects on other common toxins. Grosse et al. (1997) reported that retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the production of OTA and ZEN DNA adducts in mouse liver and kidney. Atroshi et al. (1995) also pointed out that selenium, vitamin E, and vitamin C can be used as antioxidants to protect the spleen and brain cell membranes from the damage of T-2 toxin and DON; vitamin E, selenium and other oxidants can inhibit the effect of FB1 on rat liver, Damage to spleen DNA (Atroshi et al., 1999). In addition, in vitro studies on chicken hepatocytes have shown that lutein and lycopene can effectively reduce the toxicity of T-2 toxins to chicken hepatocytes (Leal et al., 1998); in vivo tests on broiler chickens also show that lycopene can reduce the toxicity of T-2 toxins. Lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione reductase activity (Leal et al., 1999). Summary For the mycotoxins in the feed, the application of the method of compound mold removal can greatly reduce the harm of mycotoxins to animals and humans. Only by comprehensively considering the combined effect of mycotoxins and the toxic mechanism of mycotoxins can effective detoxification be carried out. https://www.arshinefeed.com/Knowledge/the-harm-of-mycotoxin-in-feed-and-the-protective-effect-of-antioxidants-on-animals
2023.03.30 04:07 ReasonableCode2545 Lawyer help!
I work at a clinic in wisconsin. For quite some time my boss has been unprofessional reactive. Recently screaming at 2 employees while pointing her finger in their faces. So many employees have issues with her but are so afraid of retaliation, they wont do anything. We do not have a formal HR department to report issues to. She is the director of operations and its difficult to go above her, the ceo does not seem to do anything when problems are brought to his attention. Employees are now leaving, and new ones are not coming in. Several of us do not want to leave, but we do want this to change. I have started looking into an employment lawyer and if we can report this to some sort of agency. I am just not sure where else to turn. Do we have a legal ground to stand on? Is there an agency to turn to to have this investigated and dealt with? It is just becoming so stressful and uncomfortable being at work. So many of us love what we do, but the work culture is starting to really take a toll. I know one thing illegal is telling us we cannot discuss our pay, and that happens often. But other than that I am not sure what would be considered illegal. She talks negatively about employees to other employees, and has talked about firing previous employees because she just couldn't stand them. She has threatened employees for talking to other employees. I know employees are supposed to be protected from a hostile work environment, I just don't know who you would go to. Or what is considered a hostile work environment.
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2023.03.30 04:07 Slight-Coffee955 Jobs in gulf
Gulf jobs for Indian 30th March 2023
🇶🇦 Qatar vacancy 🛫 Madina group requires for their oil and gas shutdown project 🛫 One of leading supply chain & logistics company 🛫 Oil and Gas maintenance project 🛫 Wanted for facility management company
🇦🇪 UAE naukri 🛫 Urgent opening for Americana quality group in Dubai 🛫 Free recruitment for facility management company 🛫 Requirement for Tea manufacturing company
🇧🇭 Bahrain gulfnaukri 🛫 An international company requires for their petro-chemical, oil and gas construction project
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia walkins 🛫 Urgently required for steel galvanizing factory 🛫 Free recruitment for operations and maintenance project 🛫 Urgent requirement for Alrabie 🛫 Staff Nurses hiring for emergency, ICU, industrial clinics 🛫 Nursing opportunity for government hospital 🛫 Wanted for reputed Multinational company 🛫 Hiring for manufacturing company 🛫 Final client interview for reputed mep company 🛫 Vacancies for a reputed 5 star hotel
🇴🇲 Oman Classifieds 🛫 Permit receiver urgently required for reputed company 🛫 Urgent Requirement for one of the leading oil and gas contractor
🇰🇼 Kuwait vacancy 🛫 Large vacancies for Switchgear and Substation projects 🛫 Urgently required for commercial building project 🛫 Requirement for a reputed restaurant 🛫 Safety Engineer required for reputed company
🇱🇧 Urgent requirement for a bottling plant in Lebanon, Daily shortlisting in progress, Online client interview shortly
Download Gulfwalkin Alert Times PDF 👇 https://www.gulfwalkinalert.com/2023/03/free-recruitment-abroad-jobs-newspaper.html
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2023.03.30 04:05 DeadOnArrival0088 Basics to learn before trying to help out more in treatment?
I’ve worked at this clinic for 7 months as a kennel tech. That is basically the only thing I do. The techs are hesitant to ask me for help because I don’t know what to do without them instructing me. I feel like an intrusion in treatment, when they’re busy and could use help I just go back to the kennel because it seems like them having to tell me/show me how to do something pisses them off and they would rather deal with it themselves. I genuinely want to be more useful in my clinic but we are stretched thin as of right now and they can’t really afford to train me. I can’t actually become a tech because I’m not 18, but I know there are ways I can assist them. Can any of you help me specify things I can learn to do through reading/independent research?
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2023.03.30 04:04 MedCoach Practice SAMP: Dizziness
Mrs. Linda Lightheaded is a 58-year-old female who presents to your clinic with a 2-week history of recurrent episodes of dizziness described as a sensation of the room spinning. She reports that the episodes last for a few minutes and are often triggered by changes in her head position, such as when getting out of bed or looking up. She denies any hearing loss, tinnitus, or a recent history of head trauma. She has no other significant medical history and is not currently taking any medications. (5 points)
Based on the history provided, what is the most likely diagnosis for Mrs. Lightheaded's symptoms? (1 point)
List two clinical maneuvers that can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. (2 points)
Describe one treatment option for managing Mrs. Lightheaded's condition. (1 point)
Provide one potential complication if Mrs. Lightheaded's condition remains untreated. (1 point)
The most likely diagnosis for Mrs. Lightheaded's symptoms is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
Clinical maneuvers to confirm the diagnosis of BPPV: Dix-Hallpike maneuver Supine roll test (horizontal canal BPPV)
One treatment option for managing BPPV: Epley maneuver (canalith repositioning procedure)
One potential complication if BPPV remains untreated: Increased risk of falls and injury
Explanation: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common cause of vertigo and is characterized by brief episodes of spinning dizziness triggered by specific head movements. It occurs due to the displacement of otoconia (calcium carbonate crystals) from the utricle into the semicircular canals of the inner ear. The Dix-Hallpike maneuver and supine roll test are clinical maneuvers used to provoke the symptoms of BPPV and to confirm the diagnosis. The Epley maneuver is a canalith repositioning procedure that is effective in treating BPPV by moving the displaced otoconia back to the utricle. If left untreated, BPPV may increase the risk of falls and injury, particularly in older individuals.
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2023.03.30 04:02 decemberbites What to do during gap semester/medical leave?
This semester really wasn't in my corner to begin with, and after taking two impromptu field trips to the emergency room, I have talked with my dean and decided on medical leave for the rest of the semester. I'll have an entire semester of Ws and might not graduate on time, but this seems to be the best option long-term.
I obviously plan on getting my health back in check during this time, but was wondering if you guys had any suggestions for what to do on the pre-med aspect of things. Upperclassmen friends have suggested studying ahead for ochem (once health gets better) and grinding a summer job to save on tuition (FGLI things, can solely focus on school when I get back).
If it helps, I just finished my Crisis Text Line training and plan on stacking non-clinical volunteer hours. A family friend at a private clinic is offering summer employment but I'm not sure if it'll be clinical or not (last summer I just ended up working front desk). I feel immensely behind but also not sure how to catch up.
Thanks in advance for your responses!
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2023.03.30 04:00 b00ty2fat Frustrated with Mom
My mom caught a stroke Feb 9th and discharged a week later. It completely changed our lives. It affected her dominant side, speech, and cognitive functions. I’ve been taking care of her and making sure she’s comfortable at home. I’ve been going with her to her appointments so that I can learn on how to help with her recovery. She’s recovered some mobility in her leg and some speech but she still struggles. We haven’t missed a single appointment however she’s very stubborn.
Every therapist we’ve seen has told us that the recovery process is more of what we do at home to help than the sessions at the clinics. She hates speech therapy. She’s cooperative with the therapists but not at home. She also really hates most healthy foods. Hates broccoli, peppers, onions, literally mostly every vegetable. Whenever I’d include it into the food, she’d throw it out.
Now, she’s refusing medication. Had her first neurology appointment today and they upped her dose from 40mg to 80mg for her high cholesterol pills. She’s taking the 40mg but she doesn’t want to take 80mg because the doctor wants to do blood work to check her liver 3 weeks from now after taking the higher dose. My moms liver is fine now but she’s afraid that the pills will damage her liver. She cannot neglect taking her medication because she has a narrowing in her brain from cholesterol plaque buildup.
This is all a lot for her to take in so I can understand being scared and having to adjust to the changes. I keep explaining why these life changes are necessary and she just keeps refusing. My father passed away 2 years ago from a severe stroke. He had about a dozen strokes beforehand over the course of 10 years. But he had a terrible diet and almost never took his medication because he was more scared of the side effects. We were always mad at him for not taking care of himself and he never wanted help. I don’t want her to do what he did. I don’t want her to feel like I’m angry at her.
Just a rant! If anyone has tips on how to sneak some veggies or trick her into eating healthy foods please let me know!
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2023.03.30 03:57 harveycliniccare_com Put A Few Drops Of This Syrup On Your Scalp And Wait To See All Your Lost Hair Grow Back
2023.03.30 03:51 rinidarklight Senior dental work worth the risk?
Hello, I'm looking for some opinions on something I'm dealing with. My 16yr old dachshund is quickly approaching the need for some serious dental work and I'm trying to figure out what the risk vs reward is.
A little history: my ex-husband took her when we divorced and then left her with me once she got well and senior and in need of quite a bit of vet care. I've spent the last 4 years trying to play catch up and get her happy and healthy. Unfortunately I've hit the biggest speed bump and that's looming serious dental work. Her teeth are destroyed because he never tried to get them cleaned or used any dental items at home. It's now causing her health issues she otherwise wouldn't have.
I do work for a vet clinic as an assistant, so she's been able to come with me and get seen regularly. I just got a huge senior wellness panel done and her results were fantastic. Her vet said that they couldn't be better. She's physically in great shape and condition. Heart and lungs are strong. Her only issue is that she is 16. Her vet says that it'd be higher risk to sedate her for the work but it might be the only way to keep her healthy for however many years she's got left.
What are some of your opinions? I want to give her the best chance at being healthy but at the same time I obviously don't know how it could turn out. I would be devastated if she didn't make it but at the same time I can't stand by and let her live with a hurting mouth.
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2023.03.30 03:50 z_mac10 What does a day of eating look like for those of you with a higher caloric intake (3000+)?
Context: I am an endurance athlete that hits the gym 5-6 days a week (6’2, 185lbs) so I need a lot of fuel to sustain my training load. I love the feeling of low carb / keto but sometimes struggle to get in enough fat calories without blowing my carb numbers sky high or letting protein trend higher than I’d like (>200g).
I’m curious what others in a similar boat do to manage this situation. I’m familiar with the general ideas (add more fats to meals, eat fattier meats, etc.) but sometimes it’s a struggle to put down ~500cal of Mayo or Coconut Oil with a meal so I’m posting to see what specific tips others have to share.
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2023.03.30 03:47 scoobert_____doobert how pap smears should be
i recently went to get my first ever pap smear as an adult, and all i can say is wow. i have had many pelvic exams in my time, including a rape kit, and i can say that most pelvic exams are practically ensured to traumatize or retraumatize you. some are much better than others, but always clinical and disconnected.
i went to a women’s health clinic in the city i live in (chicago) and it was leaps and bounds better than any exam i have ever gotten. i was walked through every step of the process, able to participate in my own care (hold the speculum once it was inserted so that she didn’t have to open it further), and even got to see my cervix! i was asked if i wanted to take the plastic speculum home to do self exams, and though i declined, i thought the offer was so so cool. it was incredibly empowering and i wish all places treated female reproductive health this way! i was so nervous initially but it all dissipated once i realized how communicative and compassionate my provider was during the process.
i feel like most places, and some people with vaginas, wish to keep it as clinical as possible so that it can be done quick. for me, i thought i wanted that same disconnected and clinical care i have gotten in the past but i was wrong. as a survivor, being walked through every step was so incredibly helpful. taking our time and even adding extra steps made it feel like my provider really cared to make me comfortable and give me some agency in what can be such an invasive process. there was no pain and no shame. i know that some people with vaginas might still prefer the more clinical, quick and easy route, to which i do not judge, but just know that there is care out there that is more compassionate, if you want it. i left my care beaming instead of shaking :)
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2023.03.30 03:46 thesteveurkel Help for Cat Healing from Surgery
Hello, fellow cat lovers. I'm looking for a little advice to help my baby girl heal post-surgery. A little background information:
The surgery was just performed on Monday, 3/27. It was to remove a cyst or abscess from the underside of her chin. My cat is 14 now with early stage renal disease and hyperthyroidism. She is medicated for the thyroid issue and is on a rx low-phosphorous food for her kidneys. She did okay with her surgery; however, the vet only used internal sutures and glued the outside of the wound because she has been slightly aggressive with him lately (hissing, growling) and he was concerned she would not make things easy when time comes to remove stitches.
We had a rough first night together post-op. I had her in a fabric e-collar for her comfort, and she crawled into bed with me with it soaking wet at some crazy hour. She likes to drink with her paws, and since the surgery, has practically gone swimming in the water bowl to get a drink for herself. Thank goodness I had another e-collar, so I put her in that and took her out of the soaking one. But when I was observing her the next day -- I work from home and I'm working in the room she's healing in -- I noticed she wasn't pawing at all at her face, so I allowed her to spend most of Tuesday without the e-collar on except for when I left the room, when in meetings, and when I slept. Same for today while I worked.
This evening, after her dinner, I thought I'd use an unscented baby wipe to blot her chin and get any wet food remnants from it. I found that there was some fresh blood coming from the wound, so I used a dry paper towel to continue blotting until it stopped bleeding. Then, I immediately put the e-collar back on her. My questions from here are:
- Is some blood spotting normal for healing on a place like a cat's chin, or should I call the vet in the morning?
- Is there a high likelihood that, with the bleeding, she won't heal properly and infection will set in? Obviously, I'd prefer to not re-traumatize her with another vet visit -- she has not even closed her eyes to sleep since the procedure -- I believe she is sleeping with eyes wide open which is both very sad and jarring to me. However, I'd rather traumatize her further than cause her an infection and prolong healing if those are the options.
- Is there a way I can keep an e-collar on her but also keep her hydrated? Will she eventually realize she can't get the water from her paws to her mouth and decide to drink "normally" once she's thirsty enough? For now, she just stubbornly swipes the water from the dish, like she's digging in a litter box, and soaks herself and the puppy pads I have layered beneath to protect my floors. So that you guys have an idea of how much water she is splashing out, it is close to half a gallon a day. Every time I rinse her bowl and refill -- which is every time paws go in -- there is only about an inch of water left where there would normally be around 4 inches when she first dove in.
I think I've covered everything pertinent here. I appreciate any advice you might provide to help her healing and keep her comfortable through this process.
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2023.03.30 03:42 kyoka1107 Update on my little...problem.
I've been looking to see what's available in the job market after making this post and trying to edge out for the rest of the month. Things were tense, I cried a lot, and got told nicely that I needed to get myself together and cut it out...because we all know chronic depression and anxiety has an off switch, why didn't I remember that?!? Genius. Anyways, I received an offer to work as an RBT in an autism clinic and tried to put in my 2 week notice with the nursery manager, but she wouldn't take it. She asked me to talk with the owner instead (see previous post in my history for that whole mess). I tried to talk with her discreetly and she yelled at me in front of the other teachers while kids were coming in, saying she didn't care if I stayed my two weeks or not (the only words I had even gotten out at this point were "I need to talk to you" and "I'm going to" before she cut me off) and that she was sick of my back and forth and "talking to people". I'm not sure if she found my posts or just overheard me speaking to my mentor about the situation, or got peeved that I was doing interviews on my breaks. Take your pick. I was told if I stay my 2 weeks, I needed to put on a smile because the kids can tell I'm miserable. I walked away quiet but shocked that she just didn't even care if I was there or not. Not sure why I was surprised, but I digress. I stewed on it through the first half of the day, and decided I would stay during the busy part of the day, but leave once they were sure everyone's break had been covered.
I think I might have thrown her off, because I just casually told her "I'll go ahead and go once everyone has had their break" and all she said was "Oh...okay." I spoke with my husband about the situation and me just walking out, and he was completely supportive of it. I've never really done that since I started teaching, and it felt kind of gross. I've always given at least a month of notice. He told me I was nicer than he was and that he would have walked out the moment she started going off on me in the front lobby. I'm sad about it, because I didn't want to end things that way. I was fully prepared to suck it up and do my two weeks, but she didn't even let me get a sentence out. And you know what? I'm kind of just pissed that I wasted a year being baited there when I could have gotten a job with the state last year as a TA and gotten more support in career advancement. At least it was only a year, I suppose it could have been worse. I also have an offer with a new Montessori start up making $5 more an hour as a guide for 3-6 year olds, with Montessori certification included. I start training for that in a few weeks, but they don't open until at least August because it's just now being built. This Montessori will cater to children with special needs, hence me getting my RBT while I wait. Once I start with the RBT company, I'll be making $3 an hour more with benefits, and I'll be working with my favorite facet of the population, the neurodiverse. Has anyone else made a switch from teaching in a daycare to providing services in an ABA clinic for autistic clients? I'm a little nervous but I know I've got this, I just need to be trained on how to officially make notes the way insurance wants them written.
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to ECEProfessionals [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 03:39 GuyManoSaurusFlex PEAT scores up and down. Got a little less than a month left, could use some tips!
Hey everyone. Taking the NPTE (PT) April 26.
Early in March, I took the retired NPTE form, version 3.4. My total score range was 608-656. All of the professional work activities were above 600. My integ/lymphatic scores were awful, and neuro was slightly under passing, but everything else was way above 600. One section was awful, another slightly below passing, and the other 3 well above.
Today, I finished the Practice Form version 3.4, and my total score range was 569-613. All of the professional work activities were slightly below 600 other than Evaluation/differential diagnosis. My cardiopum score was awful, my MSK was very high, and the others were slightly below 600. A couple sections were over 600 slightly, a couple sections slightly under, and the fifth a fair bit under.
I've been studying what I would've considered moderately well the past few weeks, so I was surprised not only by the overall significant drop in score but the huge changes in where I did well.
Any insight on why this might be happening? Or tips to direct my studying for the next 4 weeks? Am I still on track to pass? I've been using scorebuilders (mostly in the beginning, not as much lately), the NPTE clinical files podcast + some mini lectures, and their cheat sheets. I was thinking of getting final Frontier because a friend recommended it to me (and they have practice exams), or possibly TrueLearn. Any insight, wisdom, or thoughts are welcome!
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2023.03.30 03:38 icky_vicinity23 Instead of banning guns, let's ban Big Pharma and Rockefeller SSRI Kill Pills and let's ban Rockefeller-Gates Cartel and their WHO from having any influence at all on our government ever again